शोधनम् कर्म विज्नेयं द्रव्यदोषनिवारणम्।
The process which eliminates the blemishes is called shodhana.
According to Ayurved Aushudikaran (Part I, Dhamankar–Puranik, Dhootpapeshwar Publication, 2nd edition, Page No.103) Shodhana means separation of unwanted materials, removal of blemishes, and enhancing the inherent therapeutic properties.
Types of shodhana:
- Samanya shodhana
- Vishesha shodhana
The common method used to purify a group of drugs is known as Samanya shodhana. This process eliminates general impurities of metals and minerals and converts them into powder which is essential for further process.
Ex: Samanya shodhana of dhatus by repeatedly quenching in various liquid media,viz Taila,Takra,Gomutra,Kanjji,Kulatha Kwatha.
It is done specifically for a particular drug with the view of purifying it with the help of particular or specific shodhana material as well as procedure.
Ex: Swedana of Haratala in kushmanda Swarasa by Dolayantra method.
Various methods of shodhana are mentioned in Rasa classics. Viz Swedana, Bhavana, Nirvapa, Dhalana, Bharjana etc.
Different types of yantras are mentioned in the Rasa classics for the different shodhana procedures. Viz Dolayantra, Khalva Yantra, Urdhwapatana yantra, Sharava, Darvi etc.
Shodhana depends upon:
- Structure of the drug
- Composition of the drug
- Impurities of the drug
- Qualities of the drug
- Action of the drug
With the help of shodhana we can achieve the following objectives:
- Elimination of impurities
- Separation of admixtures
- Elimination of harmful matters from the drug
- Metals are made free from blemishes
- Reduce or minimize toxic effect
- Make metal or mineral soft and brittle
- Reduction in particle size
- Make substance suitable for further processing
- Transformation of attributes or imbue organic qualities to inorganic substances
- Increasing the potency of the drugs
- Modification of undesirable physical properties of the drug
- Conversion of some of the characteristics of the drug to different stages.
- Enhancement of therapeutic action
- Conversion of drugs from heterogeneous state to homogenous state
- Corrects the imperfections.